Darwin’s Descriptions of the Fuegians and Patagonians
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A SELECTION OF QUOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS FROM THE WORK OF CHARLES DARWIN All texts and images included here are from “The Voyage of the Beagle”, “The Descent of Man”, and a variety of Darwin’s letters. Longer fragments can be found at …

A SELECTION OF QUOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS FROM THE WORK OF CHARLES DARWIN

All texts and images included here are from “The Voyage of the Beagle”, “The Descent of Man”, and a variety of Darwin’s letters. Longer fragments can be found at the end of this post in addition to the corresponding source for each text.

CHARLES DARWIN’S DESCRIPTIONS OF THE FUEGIANS & PATAGONIANS:

“A wild man is indeed a miserable animal, but one well worth seeing.” 1

“The astonishment which I felt on first seeing a party of Fuegians on a wild and broken shore will never be forgotten by me, for the reflection at once rushed into my mind—such were our ancestors. These men were absolutely naked and bedaubed with paint, their long hair was tangled, their mouths frothed with excitement, and their expression was wild, startled, and distrustful. They possessed hardly any arts, and like wild animals lived on what they could catch; they had no government, and were merciless to every one not of their own small tribe. He who has seen a savage in his native land will not feel much shame, if forced to acknowledge that the blood of some more humble creature flows in his veins. For my own part I would as soon be descended from that heroic little monkey, who braved his dreaded enemy in order to save the life of his keeper; or from that old baboon, who, descending from the mountains, carried away in triumph his young comrade from a crowd of astonished dogs—as from a savage who delights to torture his enemies, offers up bloody sacrifices, practises infanticide without remorse, treats his wives like slaves, knows no decency, and is haunted by the grossest superstitions.” 2

“The Fuegians are in a more miserable state of barbarism than I had expected ever to have seen a human being. In this inclement country they are absolutely naked, and their temporary houses are like what children make in summer with boughs of trees. I do not think any spectacle can be more interesting than the first sight of man in his primitive wildness.”  3

“But I have seen nothing which more completely astonished me than the first sight of a savage. It was a naked Fuegian, his long hair blowing about, his face besmeared with paint. There is in their countenances an expression which I believe, to those who have not seen it, must be inconceivably wild. Standing on a rock he uttered tones and made gesticulations, than which the cries of domestic animals are far more intelligible.”  4

“…Their skin is of a dirty coppery-red colour… The party altogether closely resembled the devils which come on the stage in plays like Der Freischutz.”  5

“…The language of these people, according to our notions, scarcely deserves to be called articulate. Captain Cook has compared it to a man clearing his throat, but certainly no European ever cleared his throat with so many hoarse, guttural, and clicking sounds.”   6

“These were the most abject and miserable creatures I anywhere beheld… these Fuegians in the canoe were quite naked, and even one full-grown woman was absolutely so…”  7

“…These poor wretches were stunted in their growth, their hideous faces bedaubed with white paint, their skins filthy and greasy, their hair entangled, their voices discordant, and their gestures violent. Viewing such men, one can hardly make oneself believe that they are fellow-creatures, and inhabitants of the same world. It is a common subject of conjecture what pleasure in life some of the lower animals can enjoy: how much more reasonably the same question may be asked with respect to these barbarians! At night five or six human beings, naked and scarcely protected from the wind and rain of this tempestuous climate, sleep on the wet ground coiled up like animals.” 8

“The different tribes when at war are cannibals… when pressed in winter by hunger they kill and devour their old women before they kill their dogs…”  9

“Captain Fitz Roy could never ascertain that the Fuegians have any distinct belief in a future life… We have no reason to believe that they perform any sort of religious worship; though perhaps the muttering of the old man before he distributed the putrid blubber to his famished party may be of this nature.” 10

“The different tribes have no government or chief; yet each is surrounded by other hostile tribes…”  11

“They cannot know the feeling of having a home, and still less that of domestic affection; for the husband is to the wife a brutal master to a laborious slave. Was a more horrid deed ever perpetrated, than that witnessed on the west coast by Byron, who saw a wretched mother pick up her bleeding dying infant-boy, whom her husband had mercilessly dashed on the stones for dropping a basket of sea-eggs! How little can the higher powers of the mind be brought into play: what is there for imagination to picture, for reason to compare, for judgment to decide upon? to knock a limpet from the rock does not require even cunning, that lowest power of the mind. Their skill in some respects may be compared to the instinct of animals; for it is not improved by experience…”  12

“Whilst beholding these savages, one asks, Whence have they come?”  13

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VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE (1860)

General Ethnography of Darwin’s Travels

Bones

Landscapes and Images of the Journey

Zoology

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“TIERRA DEL FUEGO. December 17th, 1832. — Having now finished with Patagonia and the Falkland Islands, I will describe our first arrival in Tierra del Fuego… While entering we were saluted in a manner becoming the inhabitants of this savage land. A group of Fuegians partly concealed by the entangled forest, were perched on a wild point overhanging the sea; and as we passed by, they sprang up and waving their tattered cloaks sent forth a loud and sonorous shout. The savages followed the ship, and just before dark we saw their fire, and again heard their wild cry…

…In the morning the Captain sent a party to communicate with the Fuegians. When we came within hail, one of the four natives who were present advanced to receive us, and began to shout most vehemently, wishing to direct us where to land. When we were on shore the party looked rather alarmed, but continued talking and making gestures with great rapidity. It was without exception the most curious and interesting spectacle I ever beheld: I could not have believed how wide was the difference between savage and civilised man: it is greater than between a wild and domesticated animal, inasmuch as in man there is a greater power of improvement.

…These Fuegians are a very different race from the stunted, miserable wretches farther westward; and they seem closely allied to the famous Patagonians of the Strait of Magellan. Their only garment consists of a mantle made of guanaco skin, with the wool outside: this they wear just thrown over their shoulders, leaving their persons as often exposed as covered. Their skin is of a dirty coppery-red colour… The old man had a fillet of white feathers tied round his head, which partly confined his black, coarse, and entangled hair… The other two men were ornamented by streaks of black powder, made of charcoal. The party altogether closely resembled the devils which come on the stage in plays like Der Freischutz.

…The language of these people, according to our notions, scarcely deserves to be called articulate. Captain Cook has compared it to a man clearing his throat, but certainly no European ever cleared his throat with so many hoarse, guttural, and clicking sounds.

They are excellent mimics: as often as we coughed or yawned, or made any odd motion, they immediately imitated us. Some of our party began to squint and look awry; but one of the young Fuegians (whose whole face was painted black, excepting a white band across his eyes) succeeded in making far more hideous grimaces… All savages appear to possess, to an uncommon degree, this power of mimicry. ” 14

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“While going one day on shore near Wollaston Island, we pulled alongside a canoe with six Fuegians. These were the most abject and miserable creatures I anywhere beheld. On the east coast the natives, as we have seen, have guanaco cloaks, and on the west they possess seal- skins. Amongst these central tribes the men generally have an otter-skin, or some small scrap about as large as a pocket-handkerchief, which is barely sufficient to cover their backs as low down as their loins.

…But these Fuegians in the canoe were quite naked, and even one full-grown woman was absolutely so. It was raining heavily, and the fresh water, together with the spray, trickled down her body. In another harbour not far distant, a woman, who was suckling a recently- born child, came one day alongside the vessel, and remained there out of mere curiosity, whilst the sleet fell and thawed on her naked bosom, and on the skin of her naked baby! These poor wretches were stunted in their growth, their hideous faces bedaubed with white paint, their skins filthy and greasy, their hair entangled, their voices discordant, and their gestures violent. Viewing such men, one can hardly make oneself believe that they are fellow-creatures, and inhabitants of the same world. It is a common subject of conjecture what pleasure in life some of the lower animals can enjoy: how much more reasonably the same question may be asked with respect to these barbarians! At night five or six human beings, naked and scarcely protected from the wind and rain of this tempestuous climate, sleep on the wet ground coiled up like animals.” 15

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“The different tribes when at war are cannibals. From the concurrent, but quite independent evidence of the boy taken by Mr. Low, and of Jemmy Button, it is certainly true, that when pressed in winter by hunger they kill and devour their old women before they kill their dogs: the boy, being asked by Mr. Low why they did this, answered, “Doggies catch otters, old women no.” This boy described the manner in which they are killed by being held over smoke and thus choked; he imitated their screams as a joke, and described the parts of their bodies which are considered best to eat. Horrid as such a death by the hands of their friends and relatives must be, the fears of the old women, when hunger begins to press, are more painful to think of; we were told that they then often run away into the mountains, but that they are pursued by the men and brought back to the slaughter-house at their own firesides!

Captain Fitz Roy could never ascertain that the Fuegians have any distinct belief in a future life. They sometimes bury their dead in caves, and sometimes in the mountain forests; we do not know what ceremonies they perform. Jemmy Button would not eat land-birds, because “eat dead men”; they are unwilling even to mention their dead friends. We have no reason to believe that they perform any sort of religious worship; though perhaps the muttering of the old man before he distributed the putrid blubber to his famished party may be of this nature. Each family or tribe has a wizard or conjuring doctor, whose office we could never clearly ascertain. Jemmy believed in dreams, though not, as I have said, in the devil: I do not think that our Fuegians were much more superstitious than some of the sailors… The nearest approach to a religious feeling which I heard of, was shown by York Minster, who, when Mr. Bynoe shot some very young ducklings as specimens, declared in the most solemn manner, “Oh, Mr. Bynoe, much rain, snow, blow much.” This was evidently a retributive punishment for wasting human food.

The different tribes have no government or chief; yet each is surrounded by other hostile tribes, speaking different dialects, and separated from each other only by a deserted border or neutral territory: the cause of their warfare appears to be the means of subsistence. Their country is a broken mass of wild rocks, lofty hills, and useless forests: and these are viewed through mists and endless storms. The habitable land is reduced to the stones on the beach; in search of food they are compelled unceasingly to wander from spot to spot, and so steep is the coast, that they can only move about in their wretched canoes. They cannot know the feeling of having a home, and still less that of domestic affection; for the husband is to the wife a brutal master to a laborious slave. Was a more horrid deed ever perpetrated, than that witnessed on the west coast by Byron, who saw a wretched mother pick up her bleeding dying infant-boy, whom her husband had mercilessly dashed on the stones for dropping a basket of sea-eggs! How little can the higher powers of the mind be brought into play: what is there for imagination to picture, for reason to compare, for judgment to decide upon? to knock a limpet from the rock does not require even cunning, that lowest power of the mind. Their skill in some respects may be compared to the instinct of animals; for it is not improved by experience: the canoe, their most ingenious work, poor as it is, has remained the same, as we know from Drake, for the last two hundred and fifty years.

Whilst beholding these savages, one asks, Whence have they come? What could have tempted, or what change compelled, a tribe of men, to leave the fine regions of the north, to travel down the Cordillera or backbone of America, to invent and build canoes, which are not used by the tribes of Chile, Peru, and Brazil, and then to enter on one of the most inhospitable countries within the limits of the globe? Although such reflections must at first seize on the mind, yet we may feel sure that they are partly erroneous. There is no reason to believe that the Fuegians decrease in number; therefore we must suppose that they enjoy a sufficient share of happiness, of whatever kind it may be, to render life worth having. Nature by making habit omnipotent, and its effects hereditary, has fitted the Fuegian to the climate and the productions of his miserable country.” 16

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“…I must express my admiration at the natural politeness of almost every Chileno. In this instance, the contrast with the same class of men in most other countries was strongly marked. I may mention an anecdote with which I was at the time much pleased: we met near Mendoza a little and very fat negress, riding astride on a mule. She had a goître so enormous that it was scarcely possible to avoid gazing at her for a moment; but my two companions almost instantly, by way of apology, made the common salute of the country by taking off their hats. Where would one of the lower or higher classes in Europe have shown such feeling politeness to a poor and miserable object of a degraded race?” 17

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THE DESCENT OF MAN (1871)

“Chapter II. The Comparison of the Mental Powers of Man and the Lower Animals.

The Fuegians rank amongst the lowest barbarians; but I was continually struck with surprise how closely the three natives on board H.M.S. “Beagle,” who had lived some years in England and could talk a little English, resembled us in disposition and in most of our mental faculties…. Nor is the difference slight in moral disposition between a barbarian, such as the man described by the old navigator Byron, who dashed his child on the rocks for dropping a basket of sea-urchins, and a Howard or Clarkson; and in intellect, between a savage who does not use any abstract terms, and a Newton or Shakspeare. Differences of this kind between the highest men of the highest races and the lowest savages, are connected by the finest gradations.” 18

 

“…The tendency in savages to imagine that natural objects and agencies are animated by spiritual or living essences, is perhaps illustrated by a little fact which I once noticed: my dog, a full-grown and very sensible animal, was lying on the lawn during a hot and still day; but at a little distance a slight breeze occasionally moved an open parasol, which would have been wholly disregarded by the dog, had any one stood near it. As it was, every time that the parasol slightly moved, the dog growled fiercely and barked. He must, I think, have reasoned to himself in a rapid and unconscious manner, that movement without any apparent cause indicated the presence of some strange living agent, and no stranger had a right to be on his territory.

The belief in spiritual agencies would easily pass into the belief in the existence of one or more gods. For savages would naturally attribute to spirits the same passions, the same love of vengeance or simplest form of justice, and the same affections which they themselves experienced. The Fuegians appear to be in this respect in an intermediate condition…

Yet we could never discover that the Fuegians believed in what we should call a God, or practised any religious rites; and Jemmy Button, with justifiable pride, stoutly maintained that there was no devil in his land. This latter assertion is the more remarkable, as with savages the belief in bad spirits is far more common than the belief in good spirits.” 19

 

“…It is familiar to every one that watchmakers and engravers are liable to become short-sighted, whilst sailors and especially savages are generally long-sighted. Short-sight and long-sight certainly tend to be inherited.28 The inferiority of Europeans, in comparison with savages, in eye-sight and in the other senses, is no doubt the accumulated and transmitted effect of lessened use during many generations; for Rengger states that he has repeatedly observed Europeans, who had been brought up and spent their whole lives with the wild Indians, who nevertheless did not equal them in the sharpness of their senses. The same naturalist observes that the cavities in the skull for the reception of the several sense-organs are larger in the American aborigines than in Europeans; and this no doubt indicates a corresponding difference in the dimensions of the organs themselves. Blumenbach has also remarked on the large size of the nasal cavities in the skulls of the American aborigines, and connects this fact with their remarkably acute power of smell. The Mongolians of the plains of Northern Asia, according to Pallas, have wonderfully perfect senses; and Prichard believes that the great breadth of their skulls across the zygomas follows from their highly-developed sense-organs.” 20

 

“…In the last and present chapters I have considered the advancement of man from a former semi-human condition to his present state as a barbarian.” 21

 

“On the evidence that all civilised nations were once barbarous.—As we have had to consider the steps by which some semi-human creature has been gradually raised to the rank of man in his most perfect state, the present subject cannot be quite passed over. But it has been treated in so full and admirable a manner by Sir J. Lubbock,29 Mr. Tylor, Mr. M’Lennan, and others, that I need here give only the briefest summary of their results. The arguments recently advanced by the Duke of Argyll30 and formerly by Archbishop Whately, in favour of the belief that man came into the world as a civilised being and that all savages have since undergone degradation, seem to me weak in comparison with those advanced on the other side. Many nations, no doubt, have fallen away in civilisation, and some may have lapsed into utter barbarism, though on this latter head I have not met with any evidence. The Fuegians were probably compelled by other conquering hordes to settle in their inhospitable country, and they may have become in consequence somewhat more degraded; but it would be difficult to prove that they have fallen much below the Botocudos who inhabit the finest parts of Brazil.

The evidence that all civilised nations are the descendants of barbarians, consists, on the one side, of clear traces of their former low condition in still-existing customs, beliefs, language, &c.; and on the other side, of proofs that savages are independently able to raise themselves a few steps in the scale of civilisation, and have actually thus risen.”  22

 

“The same remark holds good with equal or greater force with respect to the numerous points of mental similarity between the most distinct races of man. The American aborigines, Negroes and Europeans differ as much from each other in mind as any three races that can be named; yet I was incessantly struck, whilst living with the Fuegians on board the “Beagle,” with the many little traits of character, shewing how similar their minds were to ours; and so it was with a full-blooded negro with whom I happened once to be intimate.

He who will carefully read Mr. Tylor’s and Sir J. Lubbock’s interesting works can hardly fail to be deeply impressed with the close similarity between the men of all races in tastes, dispositions and habits. This is shewn by the pleasure which they all take in dancing, rude music, acting, painting, tattooing, and otherwise decorating themselves,—in their mutual comprehension of gesture-language—and, as I shall be able to shew in a future essay, by the same expression in their features, and by the same inarticulate cries, when they are excited by various emotions. This similarity, or rather identity, is striking, when contrasted with the different expressions which may be observed in distinct species of monkeys.”  23

 

“We thus learn that man is descended from a hairy quadruped, furnished with a tail and pointed ears, probably arboreal in its habits, and an inhabitant of the Old World. This creature, if its whole structure had been examined by a naturalist, would have been classed amongst the Quadrumana, as surely as would the common and still more ancient progenitor of the Old and New World monkeys. The Quadrumana and all the higher mammals are probably derived from an ancient marsupial animal, and this through a long line of diversified forms, either from some reptile-like or some amphibian-like creature, and this again from some fish-like animal. In the dim obscurity of the past we can see that the early progenitor of all the Vertebrata must have been an aquatic animal, provided with branchiæ, with the two sexes united in the same individual, and with the most important organs of the body (such as the brain and heart) imperfectly developed.”  24

 

“Concluding Remarks:

…The main conclusion arrived at in this work, namely that man is descended from some lowly-organised form, will, I regret to think, be highly distasteful to many persons. But there can hardly be a doubt that we are descended from barbarians. The astonishment which I felt on first seeing a party of Fuegians on a wild and broken shore will never be forgotten by me, for the reflection at once rushed into my mind—such were our ancestors. These men were absolutely naked and bedaubed with paint, their long hair was tangled, their mouths frothed with excitement, and their expression was wild, startled, and distrustful. They possessed hardly any arts, and like wild animals lived on what they could catch; they had no government, and were merciless to every one not of their own small tribe. He who has seen a savage in his native land will not feel much shame, if forced to acknowledge that the blood of some more humble creature flows in his veins. For my own part I would as soon be descended from that heroic little monkey, who braved his dreaded enemy in order to save the life of his keeper; or from that old baboon, who, descending from the mountains, carried away in triumph his young comrade from a crowd of astonished dogs—as from a savage who delights to torture his enemies, offers up bloody sacrifices, practises infanticide without remorse, treats his wives like slaves, knows no decency, and is haunted by the grossest superstitions.

Man may be excused for feeling some pride at having risen, though not through his own exertions, to the very summit of the organic scale; and the fact of his having thus risen, instead of having been aboriginally placed there, may give him hopes for a still higher destiny in the distant future. But we are not here concerned with hopes or fears, only with the truth as far as our reason allows us to discover it. I have given the evidence to the best of my ability; and we must acknowledge, as it seems to me, that man with all his noble qualities, with sympathy which feels for the most debased, with benevolence which extends not only to other men but to the humblest living creature, with his god-like intellect which has penetrated into the movements and constitution of the solar system—with all these exalted powers—Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin.”  25

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A SELECTION OF DARWIN’S LETTERS

Fragment of a letter from Darwin to J.S. Henslow 

April 11, 1833

“We at last ran into harbour, and in the boats got to the west by the inland channels. As I was one of this party I was very glad of it. With two boats we went about 300 miles, and thus I had an excellent opportunity of geologising and seeing much of the savages. The Fuegians are in a more miserable state of barbarism than I had expected ever to have seen a human being. In this inclement country they are absolutely naked, and their temporary houses are like what children make in summer with boughs of trees. I do not think any spectacle can be more interesting than the first sight of man in his primitive wildness. It is an interest which cannot well be imagined until it is experienced. I shall never forget this when entering Good Success Bay—the yell with which a party received us. They were seated on a rocky point, surrounded by the dark forest of beech; as they threw their arms wildly round their heads, and their long hair streaming, they seemed the troubled spirits of another world. The climate in some respects is a curious mixture of severity and mildness; as far as regards the animal kingdom, the former character prevails; I have in consequence not added much to my collections.

The Geology of this part of Tierra del Fuego was, as indeed every place is, to me very interesting. The country is non-fossiliferous, and a common-place succession of granitic rocks and slates; attempting to make out the relation of cleavage, strata, &c., &c., was my chief amusement. The mineralogy, however, of some of the rocks will, I think, be curious from their resemblance to those of volcanic origin.

After leaving Tierra del Fuego we sailed to the Falklands. I forgot to mention the fate of the Fuegians whom we took back to their country. They had become entirely European in their habits and wishes, so much so that the younger one had forgotten his own language, and their countrymen paid but very little attention to them. We built houses for them and planted gardens, but by the time we return again on our passage round the Horn, I think it will be very doubtful how much of their property will be left unstolen.”  26

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Fragment of letter from Darwin to C. Whitley

Valparaiso, July 23, 1834

“But I have seen nothing which more completely astonished me than the first sight of a savage. It was a naked Fuegian, his long hair blowing about, his face besmeared with paint. There is in their countenances an expression which I believe, to those who have not seen it, must be inconceivably wild. Standing on a rock he uttered tones and made gesticulations, than which the cries of domestic animals are far more intelligible.”  27

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Fragment of a letter from Darwin to Fox, W.D.

May 23, 1833

Maldonado, Rio Plata

“In Tierra del I first saw bona? fide savages; & they are as savage as the most curious person would desire.— A wild man is indeed a miserable animal, but one well worth seeing.—”  28

 


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Notes:

  1. 1. Letter from Darwin to Fox, W.D. May 23, 1833. Maldonado, Rio Plata. Letter cited from The Darwin Correspondence Project: http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/ “In Tierra del I first saw bona? fide savages; & they are as savage as the most curious person would desire.— A wild man is indeed a miserable animal, but one well worth seeing.—”
  2. 2. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. Darwin, C. R. 1871. London: John Murray. Volume 2. 1st edition. Pg 405.
  3. 3. Letter from Darwin to J.S. Henslow. April 11, 1833. Cited from: Darwin, Francis ed. 1887. The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, Including an Autobiographical Chapter. London: John Murray. Volume 1. Pgs 243-244.
  4. 4. Letter from Darwin to C. Whitley. Valparaiso, July 23, 1834. Cited from: Darwin, Francis ed. 1887. The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, Including an Autobiographical Chapter. London: John Murray. Volume 1. Pgs 255-256.
  5. 5. A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World, Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the countries visited during the voyage round the world of H.M.S. Beagle under the command of Captain Fitz Roy, R.N. By Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S. Text and illustrations derived from the John Murray edition of 1913 titled A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World). Pgs 212-214.
  6. 6. A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World, Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the countries visited during the voyage round the world of H.M.S. Beagle under the command of Captain Fitz Roy, R.N. By Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S. Text and illustrations derived from the John Murray edition of 1913 titled A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World). Pgs 212-214.
  7. 7. A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World, Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the countries visited during the voyage round the world of H.M.S. Beagle under the command of Captain Fitz Roy, R.N. By Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S. Text and illustrations derived from the John Murray edition of 1913 titled A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World). Pgs 220-221.
  8. 8. A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World, Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the countries visited during the voyage round the world of H.M.S. Beagle under the command of Captain Fitz Roy, R.N. By Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S. Text and illustrations derived from the John Murray edition of 1913 titled A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World). Pgs 220-221.
  9. 9. A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World, Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the countries visited during the voyage round the world of H.M.S. Beagle under the command of Captain Fitz Roy, R.N. By Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S. Text and illustrations derived from the John Murray edition of 1913 titled A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World). Pgs 221-223.
  10. 10. A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World, Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the countries visited during the voyage round the world of H.M.S. Beagle under the command of Captain Fitz Roy, R.N. By Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S. Text and illustrations derived from the John Murray edition of 1913 titled A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World). Pgs 221-223.
  11. 11. A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World, Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the countries visited during the voyage round the world of H.M.S. Beagle under the command of Captain Fitz Roy, R.N. By Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S. Text and illustrations derived from the John Murray edition of 1913 titled A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World). Pgs 221-223.
  12. 12. A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World, Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the countries visited during the voyage round the world of H.M.S. Beagle under the command of Captain Fitz Roy, R.N. By Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S. Text and illustrations derived from the John Murray edition of 1913 titled A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World). Pgs 221-223.
  13. 13. A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World, Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the countries visited during the voyage round the world of H.M.S. Beagle under the command of Captain Fitz Roy, R.N. By Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S. Text and illustrations derived from the John Murray edition of 1913 titled A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World). Pgs 221-223.
  14. 14. A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World, Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the countries visited during the voyage round the world of H.M.S. Beagle under the command of Captain Fitz Roy, R.N. By Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S. Text and illustrations derived from the John Murray edition of 1913 titled A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World). Pgs 212-214.
  15. 15. A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World, Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the countries visited during the voyage round the world of H.M.S. Beagle under the command of Captain Fitz Roy, R.N. By Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S. Text and illustrations derived from the John Murray edition of 1913 titled A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World). Pgs 220-221.
  16. 16. A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World, Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the countries visited during the voyage round the world of H.M.S. Beagle under the command of Captain Fitz Roy, R.N. By Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S. Text and illustrations derived from the John Murray edition of 1913 titled A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World). Pgs 221-223.
  17. 17. A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World, Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the countries visited during the voyage round the world of H.M.S. Beagle under the command of Captain Fitz Roy, R.N. By Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S. Text and illustrations derived from the John Murray edition of 1913 titled A Naturalist’s Voyage Round the World). Pg 332.
  18. 18. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to SexDarwin, C. R. 1871. London: John Murray. Volume 1. 1st edition. Pg 34.
  19. 19. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to SexDarwin, C. R. 1871. London: John Murray. Volume 1. 1st edition. Pg 67.
  20. 20. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to SexDarwin, C. R. 1871. London: John Murray. Volume 1. 1st edition. Pg 118.
  21. 21. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to SexDarwin, C. R. 1871. London: John Murray. Volume 1. 1st edition. Pg 167.
  22. 22. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to SexDarwin, C. R. 1871. London: John Murray. Volume 1. 1st edition. Pg 181.
  23. 23. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to SexDarwin, C. R. 1871. London: John Murray. Volume 1. 1st edition. Pg 232.
  24. 24. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to SexDarwin, C. R. 1871. London: John Murray. Volume 2. 1st edition. Pg 389.
  25. 25. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to SexDarwin, C. R. 1871. London: John Murray. Volume 2. 1st edition. Pg 405.
  26. 26. Letter from Darwin to J.S. Henslow. April 11, 1833.  From: Darwin, Francis ed. 1887. The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, Including an Autobiographical Chapter. London: John Murray. Volume 1. Pgs 243-244.
  27. 27. Letter from Darwin to C. Whitley. Valparaiso, July 23, 1834. From: Darwin, Francis ed. 1887. The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, Including an Autobiographical Chapter. London: John Murray. Volume 1. Pgs 255-256.
  28. 28. Letter from Darwin to Fox, W.D. May 23, 1833. Maldonado, Rio Plata. Cited from The Darwin Correspondence Project: http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/  .